From water supply to wastewater to transportation to energy, our infrastructure is essential to daily life. Infrastructure is also expensive and long lasting. This begs the questions, “are we building the right things and spending our money most efficiently?” The dedicated infrastructure professionals who have focused on designing and building our modern society are being constrained by money, ageing infrastructure, changes in population centers and more. Optimization techniques can help civil engineers, urban planners, and other stakeholders “get the most bang for our buck.” H2Optimization provides insight into how operations research techniques can be applied to infrastructure problems such as those faced by the water sector, including drinking water, wastewater, stormwater, and even solid waste and energy. Written by professors from the US and Australia, this book is divided into three parts to provide the most beneficial use for a variety of readers. Part I: Structure of Optimization Problems, delivers an overview of how optimization problems can be set up and provides examples. The goal is to familiarize the reader with the overall process of optimization. Part II: Inside the Black Box, introduces optimization algorithms for those readers looking to understand how the problem solving engines work. The discussion focuses primarily on linear programming and genetic algorithms. The text does not delve into the detailed mathematics behind the algorithms, but rather seeks to provide a comfort level for the reader about the operation of the analytical engines that provide the solutions. Part III: Food for Thought, utilizes research case studies to provide examples of how optimization can be applied to water resources.